The allegation for hand-held carriageable adeptness sources has been apprenticed by accelerated advance in the use of acute phones, tablets, and added carriageable devices. According to the bazaar research, the adeptness coffer bazaar is accepted to adeptness added than $25 billion by 2022. USB-based designs are the best accepted amid adeptness coffer designs.
The USB blueprint was defined, in mid 1990s, as a advice agreement for abutting alien peripherals to a claimed computer. In aboriginal 2000s as added and added carriageable accessories were alien into the market, powering them became a analytical factor. The USB accepted had cogent advantages in the carriageable bazaar due to its adeptness to alteration abstracts and adeptness with the aforementioned concrete connector. However, USB powering methods were not reliable until the addition of USB Array Charging (BC) specifications.
Before the addition of BC 1.0 specifications, the USB Accepted Downstream Anchorage (SDP) was acclimated to accumulation a best of 100mA by absence and 500mA aback it is configured by adeptness negotiation, which is authentic by the USB 2.0 accepted alien in 2000. The aboriginal Array Charging blueprint (BC 1.0), appear in 2007, continued the best accepted absolute for a Dedicated Charging Anchorage (DCP) to 1.5A. In 2010, the BC 1.2 blueprint were released, accretion the best accepted absolute to 5A. The latest USB Adeptness Commitment (PD) blueprint continued the adeptness commitment adequacy up to 100W with USB Type-C connectors.
The above allotment of acute phones, tablets, computer peripherals and carriageable accessories accept USB connectors and cables for powering. This commodity discusses the architecture of USB Type-C PD adeptness banks; i.e., adeptness coffer with a USB Type-C adapter and appliance the USB Adeptness Commitment (PD) specification.
Design of accepted USB adeptness banks
Power banks frequently use lithium ion batteries due to their aerial adeptness density, ablaze weight, lower self-discharge rate, and low aliment cost. Table 1 shows the nominal voltage appraisement of lithium beef in 1-cell and 2-cell configurations. Generally, for adeptness coffer applications, the 2-cell agreement is recommended as the adeptness is higher.
[Table 1 | Nominal voltage of cell/battery.]
A accepted USB Adeptness Coffer architecture (see Figure 1), consists of two USB ports: the array charging anchorage and the array absolution port (or output port).
[Figure 1 | Block diagram of a accepted USB adeptness bank.]
The array charging anchorage in best designs is a USB Mini-B or Micro-B connector, which in about-face is affiliated to a USB coffer adeptness adapter. The array absolution anchorage usually is a USB Type-A connector, area a acute buzz or any added carriageable accessory is connected.
The array charging subsystem consists of a USB Mini-B or Micro-B connector, buck-boost converter, array affiliated altitude ambit and the arrangement MCU. The charging contour of a lithium ion array consists of a affiliated accepted date and a affiliated voltage date to ensure able and safe charging up to the best accommodation of the battery. The MCU controls the buck-boost advocate that regulates the charging accepted for the battery. The MCU has a charging contour ascendancy block that handles accepted and voltage profiles based on the charging algorithm. The MCU additionally monitors and controls these charging profiles for the array to abstain over charging and overheating that can account the array to explode.
Battery absolution area is additionally controlled by the MCU. The array affiliated altitude ambit provides array voltage, absolution current, and temperature abstracts to the MCU, which in about-face handles array acquittal based on the battery-discharging algorithm. The MCU additionally controls the achievement buck-boost advocate to accommodate adeptness to an alien accessory on the achievement port.
The MCU/controller generates all the signals appropriate to ascendancy charging and absolution ascendancy circuits, apprehend the affiliated ethics from the altitude circuit, ensure the assurance of the battery, and assorted added functionalities.
The move to USB Type-C Adeptness Delivery
The appliance of a accepted USB adeptness coffer has been primarily for accessories like acute phones, tablets and added carriageable accessories that can be abundantly answerable with 5V. Today’s adeptness banks additionally allegation to be able to allegation laptops, home appliances, and added accessories that crave a college achievement voltage, college current, and college adeptness rating. The manufacturers of assorted carriageable accessories and smartphones accept additionally alien customized charging standards for added able charging.
For example, Apple Charging, Qualcomm Quick Allegation (QC), Samsung Adaptive Fast Charging (AFC), and Programmable Adeptness Accumulation (PPS) are some of the bigger charging methods acclimated in the acute phones. The voltage rating, accepted rating, and charging profiles of these methods are proprietary and no best bound to 5V output. These charging protocols are altered from bequest BC1.2 blueprint and accept an continued adeptness rating.
The accent of USB Type-C PD adeptness coffer is bright aback adeptness banks are appropriate to extend their abutment to added proprietary charging standards. The USB Type-C PD accepted supports up to 20V/5A (100W) of adeptness delivery, which is added than abundant to adeptness desktop computers, laptops, acute phones, tablets, added carriageable devices, and more.
Type-C connectors accept already started demography over the acute buzz and book industry, not alone as a adeptness adapter but additionally as the abstracts anchorage and audio jacks. The Type-C adapter has accepted advantages like:
The pin diagram of a accepted 24-pin Type-C adapter is apparent in Figure 2. Pins appropriate for the accomplishing of a adeptness coffer appliance are additionally indicated.
[Figure 2 | Accepted Type-C Adapter pin diagram.]
The D and D- pins ascertain assorted terminations on the affiliated accessory (phone, tablet, laptop, etc.) and analyze the charging adjustment acclimated by the device. The adeptness arrangement (i.e., voltage and accepted value) depends on the charging adjustment or protocol, so abortion apprehension is actual important for adeptness coffer performance.
Configuration Channel (CC) pins are acclimated in the discovery, management, and configurations of USB Type-C access beyond the accepted Type-C cable. During adeptness delivery, CC curve (CC1, CC2) serve as added function:Power negotiation. The absorbed ports accommodate voltage, current, and administration of adeptness breeze over the USB cable appliance the CC lines. The VBUS curve accumulation adeptness according to the accustomed arrangement afterwards negotiation.
The best cogent advantage of appliance USB Type-C for adeptness coffer architecture is its adaptability and adeptness to abutment altered charging methods with distinct connector. Table 2 shows a allusive assay amid a accepted USB and USB Type-C PD adeptness bank.
[Table 2 | Comparison amid Adeptness Banks based on Accepted USB and USB Type-C PD]
As can be apparent from Table 2, the USB Type-C PD adeptness coffer offers above anatomic due to its advantages of a capricious Type-C adapter and its adeptness to abutment assorted charging protocols.
Design of USB Type-C PD adeptness bank
Figure 3 shows the block diagram of a archetypal USB Type-C adeptness bank. The Type-C adeptness coffer has a distinct Type-C adapter interface for charging and absolution the Li-ion battery. The Type-C PD ambassador is the affection of the adeptness coffer and manages the buck-boost regulator authoritative allegation and acquittal of the Li-ion battery.
[Figure 3 | Block diagram of USB Type-C PD adeptness bank.]
Power coffer operation supports two operations with a distinct Type-C connector: array charging and array discharging.
During array charging, the Type-C PD ambassador enables customer aisle FETs so that the Li-ion array starts charging. The bi-directional buck-boost advocate controls the array charging voltage and accepted to advance the actual charging profile. The Type-C PD ambassador continuously monitors array ambit for safe and defended charging of the Li-ion battery.
During array absolution or output, the Type-C PD ambassador turns on provider aisle FETs, and the Adeptness Coffer act as adeptness source. The Type-C PD ambassador does adeptness agreement with the smartphone or accessory affiliated by the Type-C connector. It again controls the administration of the buck-boost regulator so that the Li-ion array starts sourcing the accepted for charging the smartphone or added affiliated device.
Today, Type-C controllers are accessible that are advised accurately for the requirements of adeptness coffer and adeptness adapter applications. For example, EZ-PD CCG3PA controllers from Cypress Semiconductor abutment the USB PD 3.0 blueprint with Programmable Adeptness Accumulation (PPS) mode. The ambassador additionally supports bequest BC1.2 and assorted proprietary charging methods like Qualcomm Quick Allegation (QC), Samsung Adaptive Fast Charging (AFC) and Apple charging.
Integrated controllers are congenital in important system-level protections that accommodate overvoltage aegis (OVP), overcurrent aegis (OCP), beneath voltage aegis (UVP), abbreviate ambit aegis (SCP), over temperature aegis (OTP), and electrostatic acquittal (ESD) protection. Integrated configurable resistors and terminations on D /D- curve added abridge design. For the best flexibility, controllers are accessible that abutment both Type-C and bequest Type-A ports so that adeptness banks can interoperate with accessories as the bazaar transitions from Type-A to Type-C. Arrangement amount is bargain by affiliation of apparatus such as VBUS voltage regulator, accepted faculty amplifier, acknowledgment control, ADCs, PWMs, and added functionality. Figure 4 shows a sample blueprint for adeptness coffer and adapter applications based on the CY4532 Evaluation kit appliance the CCG3PA controller.
[Figure 4 | Sample blueprint for adeptness coffer and adapter applications based on the CY4532 Evaluation kit appliance the CCG3PA controller.]
With a programmable controller, the adeptness coffer can abutment assorted charging standards, as apparent in Table 3. Figure 5 shows an archetype of adeptness coffer operation.
[Table 3 | Programmable controllers can abutment assorted charging standards.]
[Figure 5 | Breeze blueprint analogy archetype of adeptness coffer operation.]
USB Type-C PD is fast acceptable the accepted for carriageable accessories and added applications. A allusive assay amid accepted USB adeptness banks and USB Type-C adeptness coffer acutely shows that adeptness banks based on USB Type-C PD represent the approaching for USB-based charging.
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