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In The Art of Allotment (The MIT Press), Michael Ohl, a biologist at the Accustomed History Building of Berlin, delves into the art, science, language, and history of taxonomy. There are some 1.8 actor accepted species—and scientists appraisal that 100 actor added anticipate discovery. Every one will charge a name. How does the activity work? 

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Ohl takes us into the acreage with the attack and scientists at the beginning of allotment the accustomed world, including Father Armand David, a French priest who was the aboriginal to call the panda to the Western world; American paleontologists Edward Dinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, who bitterly battled in the Bone Wars; and Polish biologist Benedykt Dybowski, whose altered allotment arrangement for crustaceans alleged gammarids (a.k.a. “scuds”) resulted in tongue-twisters such as Cancelloidokytodermogammarus (Loveninsuskytodermogammarus) loveni.

In the extract below, Ohl tells the adventure of one of the abstruse footnotes to Apple War II: Aback Adolf Hitler threatened the German biologists who capital to rename bats and shrews. And, apprehend on for the best bat appellation of all time: “bacon mouse.”

—Jen Pinkowski


On March 3, 1942, a abrupt account with a rather adapted banderole appeared tucked abroad in the Berliner Morgenpost newspaper. “Fledermaus No Longer!” the adventurous belletrist proclaimed. The afterward abbreviate argument was printed underneath:

“At its 15th General Assembly, the German Association for Mammalogy anesthetized a resolution to change the zoologically ambiguous names ‘Spitzmaus’ [shrew] and ‘Fledermaus’ [bat] to ‘Spitzer’ and ‘Fleder.’ Fleder is an old anatomy for Flatterer [one that flutters]. The Spitzmaus, as it happens, has borne a arrangement of names: Spitzer [one that is pointed], Spitzlein, Spitzwicht, Spitzling. Over the advance of the conference, several important lectures were captivated in the amphitheater of the Zoologisches Building […].”

To this day, admitting the problems appear by Germany’s arch specialists on mammals on the pages of one of the capital’s circadian papers, fledermaus and spitzmaus abide the accepted German names for bats and shrews. Neither dictionaries nor specialized attributes guides accommodate entries for fleder or spitzer (provided one disregards the primary analogue of spitzer, which is a “small apparatus acclimated for the cutting of pencils”).

Indeed, a abrupt acknowledgment to the account in catechism accustomed from an abrupt source. Martin Bormann, Adolf Hitler’s clandestine secretary, beatific a bulletin on March 4, 1942, to Hans Heinrich Lammers, arch of the Reich Chancellery. The cannonball independent appreciably absolute instructions from Hitler:

“In yesterday’s newspapers, the Führer apprehend an account apropos the changes of name ratified by the German Association for Mammalogy on the break of its 15th General Assembly. The Führer afterwards instructed me to acquaint to the amenable parties, in no ambiguous terms, that these changes of name are to be antipodal immediately. Should associates of the Association for Mammalogy accept annihilation added capital to the war accomplishment or smarter to do, conceivably an continued assignment in the architecture army on the Russian advanced could be arranged. Should such asinine renamings activity already more, the Führer will absolutely booty adapted measures; beneath no accident should agreement that accept become accustomed over the advance of abounding years be adapted in this fashion.”

There’s no catechism that the “responsible parties” accepted and responded to the injunction, which could hardly accept been misinterpreted. On July 1, 1942, at least, a apprehension was printed in the Zoologischer Anzeiger—at that time, the “organ of the German Zoological Society”—that comprised a bare bristles lines. The apprehension has no byline and can best acceptable be attributed to the journal’s publishers:

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“Regarding the altercation [in beforehand issues of the Zoologischer Anzeiger] about abeyant changes to the names ‘Fledermaus’ and ‘Spitzmaus,’ the Editors ambition to accomplish accessible that agreement that accept become accustomed over the advance of abounding years are not to be altered, afterward an advertisement by the Reich Minister of Science, Education, and Civic Culture, as per the Führer’s directive.”

It’s believable that Lammers forwarded Hitler’s instructions (which had accomplished him by way of Bormann) to Bernhard Rust, the Reich Minister of Science, Education, and Civic Culture. Rust will again acceptable accept ordered one of the “parties responsible” for the abhorred activity to broadcast the retraction in the adapted platform. The Zoologischer Anzeiger fit the bill, because the actuality that by 1941 it had already featured two accessories debating whether the name spitzmaus should be changed.

What is the problem, though, that adept scientists accept with spitzmaus and fledermaus, those blah agreement for the amazon and the bat? And how could it appear to canyon that Adolf Hitler—preoccupied as he was in 1942— should alone accompany in the attack for the absolute allocation of these baby mammals?


The accepted cilia in these two accustomed and accustomed agreement is of advance the additional chat component, maus, or “mouse.”

Fledermaus and spitzmaus … are (linguistically) aboriginal and foremost mice. By referencing assertive characteristics in these admixture words (fleder comes from flattern, “to flap”; spitz, or “point,” refers to the shrew’s pointy adenoids or rather arch shape), it becomes accessible to accommodate a bright name—or about clear, at least, because there are abounding bat and amazon species, but added on that later.

Both names, of course, betoken amalgamation with mice, and that’s the afraid point. In zoological terms, mice are a accumulation of rodents accepted at the college akin of allocation as Muroidea, “muroids” or the “mouse-like.” The accumulation includes absolutely the mix of beastly groups, with occasionally analytical names like zokor, dark mole-rat, annoying timberline mouse, and Chinese pygmy dormouse, not to acknowledgment our pet hamsters and those calm but blackballed mice and rats. Accepted to all muroids are assorted and circuitous structural actualization in the skull, accompanying of advance with the oversized, always growing incisors archetypal of rodents. Beyond that, although amaranthine evolutionary gimmickry can circumduct about this abrasion affair (long or abbreviate legs, altered fur colors and appendage lengths, and abundant more), and alike afterwards biological expertise, best muroids tend to be identifiable as mice, if alone vaguely.

Zoologically speaking, a bald mouse-like actualization is bereft to denote a muroid. Instead, the specific anatomical actualization of the skull charge be in evidence.

Field, house, and deer mice are accustomed to abounding North Americans, although they about alive hidden away, and we don’t about appointment them. These animals with the “mouse” abject in their name are absolutely mice in the zoological sense.

The aforementioned cannot absolutely be said for the bat and shrew—the fledermaus and spitzmaus—despite their names. Neither of them is alike a rodent or, consequently, a muroid. Again what are they?

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In the allocation of mammals, a accomplished alternation of groupings is commonly distinguished, usually assigned the rank of adjustment aural the chic of mammals. Depending on accurate opinion, there are 25 to 30 of these orders of mammals. Rodents comprise one of these orders, to which muroids and several added groups of mammals belong.

Bats, meanwhile, are archetypal assembly of the adjustment of aerial mammals. Their accurate name is Chiroptera, from the Greek words chiros (hand) and pteros (wings). Chiroptera, then, agency “hand-flier,” which is a applicable name for bats and their abutting relatives, aerial foxes.

The analytical adjustment of the shrew, or spitzmaus, is bent in abundant the aforementioned way. They, too, abort to acquire the abrasion characteristics in question, although they do allotment ancestry with moles and hedgehogs, as able-bodied as with the solenodon (meaning “slotted tooth”), which is a antagonistic bearcat built-in alone to the Caribbean islands. They are now anchored beneath the amazing appellation Eulipotyphla, but alone aback 1999. How they are related—along with ties to an arrangement of added mammal families, such as tenrecs, desmans, and aureate moles—has not been absolutely explained.

Experts accept accepted for a continued time—since Linnaeus’s Systema Naturae at the latest—that neither bats nor shrews are accompanying to mice, to which accepted chat pays no heed. The fledermaus and spitzmaus calmly advance their spots in the lexicon.


One of the aboriginal mammal biologists to attack for the acclimation of German mammal names was Hermann Pohle. Born in Berlin in 1892, Pohle remained affectionate to the burghal until his afterlife and spent a ample allotment of his activity alive at the accustomed history building there. His career as a mammal biologist started early, aback as a university apprentice he formed as an contributed agent in the museum’s acclaimed mammal collection. Through diligence, endurance, and accurate acumen, he formed his way up to arch babysitter of mammals. He appropriately captivated one of the best affecting positions, of both civic and all-embracing significance, in the acreage of analytical mammal research.

In 1926, Pohle—along with Ludwig Heck, the above administrator of the Berlin Zoo, and a cardinal of added colleagues—founded the German Association for Mammalogy, of which he was the aboriginal head. Pohle appropriately had his feel on the beating of mammal research, as it were, and he followed the history of the association over the abutting bristles decades “with agog interest,” as one biographer noted.

In accession to his assignment as a researcher and babysitter of the mammal accumulating at Berlin’s Building für Naturkunde (Museum of Accustomed History), Pohle’s interests additionally lay with German mammal names. Not alone did he advance for acclimation of names, Pohle additionally campaigned to accept absolute names adjourned for accurate believability and changed, should they not canyon (his) zoological muster.

In 1942, Pohle appear a arbitrary commodity acclamation the question, “How abounding brand of mammals alive in Germany?” He added a absolute account of all German mammals, anniversary with its absolute “technical name,” as Pohle alleged it, as able-bodied as its agnate German name. Aback it came to the assorted brand of spitzmaus (of which the Germans accept eight, incidentally, admitting the abiding consequence that there is “the” one and alone shrew) and the 16 brand of bats that accept the abject chat “fledermaus” in their name, Pohle consistently uses addition terms. The eight amazon brand appropriately became waldspitzer, zwergspitzer, alpenspitzer, wasserspitzer, mittelspitzer, feldspitzer, gartenspitzer, and hausspitzer. For the bats, the abject of their admixture name was afflicted to fleder: teichfleder, langfußfleder, wasserfleder, and so on, all the way to a appellation of accurate elegance, wimperfleder.

Pohle’s article, which predates the society’s 15th General Assembly and Hitler’s affecting veto by added than a year, is a decidedly absorbing antecedent because he additionally shares his absolute motivations for the appropriate changes. His absolute cold is to see “the appellation ‘Maus’ disappear, amenable as it is for laypersons’ wont to agglomeration the animals calm with absolute mice.”

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In the admiration of these laypersons, mice are article “ugly and annihilative that charge be fought, or alluringly exterminated.” Shrews and bats, controllable as they are to humans, are appropriately accountable to the aforementioned barbarous fate. Pohle hopes for a “shift in perspective” to occur, already the endangered animals are no best referred to as mice.

What to do, then? Pohle would adopt the appellation spitz for spitzmaus, but it’s already been assigned to a dog breed. Rüssler could additionally work, alone it already applies to some added insectivore. That leaves spitzer, a name that emphasizes the pointy arch as a appropriate appropriate and is still available.

Pohle wants a name for bats afterwards “maus” but appropriately with a nod to the animals’ aerial ability. Best names of this affectionate are already active for birds, and “flatterer” or “flutterer” could alone logically be acclimated for a assertive citizenry of bats, namely, those bad at flying. “Flieger” or “flyer,” addition hot candidate, is additionally in use by assorted added beastly groups.

But why, Pohle asks the reader, would one alike charge to say “fledermaus,” aback “fleder” absolutely makes absolute sense? Pohle mentions that the aboriginal acceptation of “fleder” was different, but few bodies were acquainted of this actuality anymore.

On the off adventitious that he was absolute in this assessment, let it be acclaimed that fledermaus can be traced aback to the 10th century, to the Old High German “vledern” or “flattern” (the infinitive anatomy of “flatterer”). The angel of the bat as a “fluttering mouse” has existed aback this time in abounding languages, including “flittermouse” in English. A cardinal of added German agreement abide for bats. In some regions of Germany, such as Rhineland-Palatinate and Southern Hesse, the Old High German “fledarmus” is said to accept been acclimated to call nocturnal creatures, such as moths. There, bats were allegedly alleged “speckmaus,” instead of fledermaus, because while hibernating, they could be apparent blind like pieces of bacon (speck) in the smoke.

Pohle’s adherence to announcement the aegis of bats and shrews through a adventurous name change accomplished its acting acme a year later, when—at the 15th General Assembly of the German Association for Mammalogy in Berlin—a resolution was anesthetized on a accepted and bounden acceptance of the spitzer- and fleder-based names Pohle had suggested. The after-effects are known: Hitler was not amused.


We can alone assumption at what Hitler’s absolute motive was in arising such desperate threats to anticipate the name alterations proposed by the German Association for Mammalogy. It could accept been his abuse that in 1942—hard times because of the war—leading German intellectuals were anxious with article so unimportant and blah as the account of beastly names. Conceivably this chestnut is aloof a added archetype of Hitler’s abhorrence against intellectuals.

It is ultimately unclear, even, to what admeasurement Hitler was the active force abaft this charge or whether this is a case of subordinates “working appear the Führer,” as historian Ian Kershaw describes it. Conceivably, afterwards account the Berliner Morgenpost, Hitler may accept remarked abnormally apropos the zoologists’ plans. His circle—in this case, Bormann—may accept anon interpreted this as “the Führer’s will” and sprung to activity accordingly. As for Pohle and his colleagues, it can’t accept mattered abundant whether the “invitation” to the Eastern Advanced came anon from Hitler or was announced in an act of abortive obedience.

Whatever the case may be, Pohle’s appropriate name changes did not abort because of Hitler’s intervention, which apparently resonated as little with the German-speaking accessible as the aboriginal notice. Pohle bootless because he capital to booty the basal abstraction of a connected allotment arrangement out of the accurate ambience and alteration it into the branch of vernacular. Accustomed German is not formally and clearly regulated, and like every added vernacular, it follows altered rules than accurate speech. It is shaped by a aggregation of factors and influences that accept their own capricious dynamic, which leads to some chat usages alteration while others stabilize.

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In kindergarten, we apprentice that small, bristling four-legged animals with a appendage are “mice.” This act of allotment fulfills the exact action accepted of it. It “tags” specific linguistic content—a meaning—that is about understood. The aberration amid muroids and insectivores, which is important to zoologists, has no appliance in accustomed confrontations with “mouse-like” animals and makes no aberration to best people. A abrasion is a mouse, whether a striped acreage abrasion or a shrew.

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